Michigan enacted this law in 1977 and is still the only state to protect overweight people from discrimination.

The Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act forbids discrimination in the state of Michigan on the basis of age, height and weight.  This law got a lot of attention 10 years ago according to time.com,

The Michigan law faced a major test in 2010 when former Hooters waitress Cassandra Smith filed a lawsuit against the “breastaurant” chain, alleging that managers at the Roseville restaurant where she worked told her that if she didn’t lose weight in 30 days, she would face a “separation” from the company.

Important note, 21-year-old Smith only weighed 132 pounds.  A second waitress also filed a lawsuit a month later.  23-year-old Leanne Convery was fired by Hooters in Roseville, MI after being on "weight probation."  She only weight 115 pounds.  Both cases were settled out of court.

On a positive note: body positivity has been a growing trend for the last couple of years.  Wikipedia describes Body positivity this way,

Body positivity is a social movement initially created to empower and shed light on marginalized bodies not shown in the media, whilst challenging the ways in which society presents and views the physical body.

Even though Michigan is the only state with a law like this on the books, there is a handful of cities with similar regulations.  Binghampton, NY, Madison, WI, San Francisco, CA, Santa Cruz, CA, Urbana, IL and Washington DC all have laws that prevent weight discrimination.

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